Commonly used backgrounds in the GIS Center

Amlaak Maps

Amlaak maps are ESA maps that the Amlaak Department uses to delineate the borders of the archaeological sites. They are the official source for SCA's site location and boundaries. Their scale varies: Amlaak usually uses 1:2500 maps for Nile Valley and the Delta, and 1:25,000 or 1:50,000 maps for remote areas. The borders are drawn by hand and colors are used to mark legal statuses. Sometimes the maps may contain handwritten notes about the area and ceded sections.

Ministry of Agriculture Maps

These are updated ESA 1:2500 cadastral maps on which urban expansion until 1985 is indicated by the Ministry of Agriculture using aerial photographs taken in 1984. These maps are used extensively by local authorities and land use planners.

Updated ESA 1:2500 Cadastral Maps

These maps are updates of ESA cadastral maps and show detailed land ownership information, including parcels and plots numbers. They are useful verifying site borders against legal decrees. Production of these cadastral maps began in the 1930s and they have undergone continuous revision and expansion since then. The series is kilometric, using the Egyptian Transverse Mercator (ETM) projection system, so distances are related in terms of meters and kilometers, rather than degrees and seconds. 

ESA 1:50,000 Topographical Maps

These maps show urban agglomerations along with topographical features, such as roads, railways, and irrigation canals. Superimposing site boundaries on these maps shows the relationships between archaeological sites and these features.

Topographical Vector Layers

Vector layers are simple to work with and offer a great potential for spatial analysis. These layers are digitized from 1:50,000 maps produced in the 1990s. The maps show the boundaries of urban areas as updated using satellite images from 1999, thus showing the development of urban expansion from 1993 to 1999. 

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